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Intrafamilial Phenotype Variability in Two Male Siblings, With X-linked Juvenile Retinoschisis and Dorzolamide Treatment Effect in the Natural History of the Disease.

To investigate how genotype is related to phenotype and document correlations of genotype-phenotype with response of topical administration of dorzolamide in siblings affected with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS). We performed a retrospective study on two male siblings (four eyes) with XLRS, who were treated with topical installation of dorzolamide. Clinical diagnosis was supported with familial genetic analysis with bi-directional Sanger sequencing of RS1 pathogenic variant. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA), ultrasound scan (U/S) and electroretinogram (ERG) were used in the evaluation. Central macular thickness (CMT) and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were recorded monthly for eighteen months. We performed genetic analysis in their family for mutations in the gene that encodes the protein retinoschisin, responsible for retinoschisis (RS1). It was proved that phenotype variability might be related to the same pathogenic variant. While there was an improvement in BCVA and OCT central macular thickness in the patient with the mild form of disease, the visual acuity and the OCT scans of the patient with severe form of disease did not improve. Intrafamilial phenotypic variability between individuals sharing identical pathogenic variant was documented. Both our patients had a pathogenic variant in a hemizygous state at a genomic location in exon 6 of the RS1 gene; Frameshift mutation that is likely to cause protein truncation was identified which is suggested to result in greater clinical severity. Consequently, it was found that response to dorzolamide is correlated to phenotypic severity.

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