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Laboratory for Bone and Joint Diseases, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Tokyo108-8639, Japan.

Dysosteosclerosis (DOS) is a distinct form of sclerosing bone disease characterized by irregular osteosclerosis and platyspondyly. DOS is genetically heterogeneous; however, only five cases with SLC29A3 mutations and a single case with a splice-site mutation of TNFRSF11A have been reported, and TNFRSF11A is also a causal gene for osteopetrosis, autosomal recessive 7 (OP-AR7). Thus, the causal genes of DOS and their genotype-phenotype associations remain unclear. In this study, we examined a Japanese patient with DOS and found a novel variant in TNFRSF11A. The homozygous variant was a G to T transversion at the first nucleotide of exon 9 (c.784G>T). Although the variant was predicted to cause a stop codon mutation (p.E262*), in silico evaluation of the exonic splicing elements followed by RT-PCR for the patient-derived cells showed that it caused aberrant splicing due to the change in the exonic splicing element and produced two types of aberrant transcripts: One caused a premature stop codon (p.E262Vfs*17) leading to nonsense mutation-mediated mRNA decay; the other produced a protein with interstitial deletion (p.E262_Q279del). The effects of the mutation on five splicing isoforms of TNFRSF11A were different from those in OP-AR7, but comparable with those in the first DOS with the TNFRSF11A mutation. Thus, we identified the second case of DOS caused by the TNFRSF11A splice-site mutation and confirmed the novel disease entity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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